Aitareya Upanisada I Brhadaranyaka Upanisada I Caitanya Upanisada I Chandogya Upanisada I Gopala-tapani Upanisada I Hayagriva Upanisada I Isavasya (Isa) Upanisada I
Kali-santarana Upanisada I Katha Upanisada I Kausitaki Upanisada I Kena Upanisada I
Krsna Upanisada I Maitri Upanisada I Mandukya Upanisada I Mundaka Upanisada I
Narayana Upanisada I Nrsimha Tapania Upanisada I Other Upanisadas I Prasna Upanisada I
Sita Upanisada I Svetasvatara Upanisada I Taittiriyaka Upanisada I Vajrasucika Upanisada I Vasudeva Upanisada
The Upanishads are a collection of Vedic sacred texts that were recorded in Sanskrit over the course of some two thousand years, through the end of the Middle Ages. The majority were composed between 500 BCE and 200 CE but likely began earlier in an oral tradition. They are meant to be read in the form of instruction, teaching, or dialogue between guru and student. The texts are traditionally considered to be a further unfolding of the ancient Vedas, allowing those earliest teachings to persist as meaningful for subsequent generations. Approximately 108 of the traditional...
In the ancient Sanskrit language of India, the word "Upanishad" consists of three words: 1) "Upa" meaning "near", 2) "ni" meaning "down" and 3) "shad" meaning "be seated".
Thus, an "Upanishad" is a teaching received while seated at the feet of a teacher (guru).
The Upanishads constitute what Brahmin scholars call the "Vedanta" - the end of the Vedas. This is not merely because of their physical position at the end, but because they are considered to contain the ultimate teachings of the Vedas and are of the highest metaphysical importance.
Traditionally, there are more than 200 Upanishads; however, only 12 of them are considered to be major works.
The authors of the Upanishads were many, but they were not solely from the priestly caste. They were poets prone to flashes of spiritual wisdom, and their aim was to guide a few chosen pupils to the point of liberation, which they themselves had attained. According to some scholars, the main figure in the Upanishads is Yajnavalkya, the great sage who propounded the doctrine of 'neti-neti', the view that "truth can be found only through the negation of all thoughts about it". Other important Upanishadic sages are Uddalaka Aruni, Shwetaketu, Shandilya, Aitareya, Pippalada, Sanat Kumara. Many earlier Vedic teachers like Manu , Brihaspati, Ayasya and Narada are also found in the Upanishads.