Chidambaram

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By editor - 6.10 2017


The traditional name of the temple complex, Chidambaram Tillai Nataraja-koothan Kovil. The mangrove forests houses the ancient Tillai trees (Exocoeria agallocha) surrounding the shrine.

This is the temple dedicated to Lord Shiva found in his famous dancing pose with one leg in the air and consisting of four arms. The temple is honoured to Lord Shiva in his aspect of Nataraja or the form of the celestial Dancer. Lord Shiva is seen in the Ananda Tandavam dancing position.

Chidambaram is the seat of Lord Shiva as the cosmic dancer Nataraja (Ananda Tandava pose ; the Cosmic Dance of bliss). The Deity of Nataraja is enshrined in the Chit sabha. Behind this Deity, is a black screen, which is considered to cover the Akasa Lingam. There is no Lingam, but we are made to believe that there is an invisible Lingam, with golden vilva garlands, i.e stressing the belief that there is everything in nothing. There are five silver plated steps to reach the Chit Sabha, representing the Panchakshara mantram – Na ma si va ya. The embossed images of the saints Vyagrapada and Patanjali, are to be seen on the doors. Both these saints had been blessed witht the sight of the cosmic dance of Shiva. Lord Vishnu also is said to have witnesses this scene. The sanctum of Sivakama Sundari lies to the left of Natarajar Sannidhi. The images of Ratnasabhapati (Nataraja of Ruby), the Spatika Lingam of Chandramauleeswara, Swarnakarshana Bhairavar, Mukhalingam are also to be found in the Chitsabha.

Chidmabaram is also called akasha sthala as here lord shiva lingam is made of Akasha element. Other 4 elements of which Shivalingam is are either Earth (Generally seen), Fire, Air or Water. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ersC2KHxV08

(Located in five south Indian temples, the Bhuta Lingams are said to be places where Shiva manifested himself as the natural elements. The temples and their respective elements are : a) Chidambaram or Chidambareshwar: ether (akasa), b) Sri Kalahasti or Kalahastishwar: wind (vayu), c) Tiruvanaikka/Jambunath / Jambukeshwar near Srirangam: d) water / jala, Kanchipuram / Shivkanchi: (prithvi) earth, and e) Tiruvanamalai (Arunachalam): (Agni) fire.)

The temple was in vogue for centuries, but its known glory in records begins with the visit of Hiranya Chakravarthi of Kashmir around 500 A.D. The king is said to have been cured of his leprosy with a single dip in the temple pushkarini, Sivaganga thirtham . The four great Shaiva acharyas Appar, Sambandar, Sundarar and Manikkavachakar are connected with this holy temple and produced master pieces eulogising their respective paths.

In the 10th century, the Chola king Parantaka I made rich endowments to the temple, besides providing a golden roof to the Karuvarai. The Cholas, who were devout Saivites made improvements to the temple maintaining its glory. The north Gopuram was built by Krishnadeva Raya and the east Gopuram was built by Sundra Pandya

The temple is built of granite on 39 acres of land in the heart of the city. It is surrounded by massive walls with four big tall gopurams in four directions and a big tank called Sivagangal tank measuring 175×100 feet towards the North. The North & South gopurams are 160feet high. The 108 dance postures as seen in the Natya Sastra are sculpted in these towers. It has five principal sabhas known as Kanakasabha, Chit sabha, Nritya sabha, Deva sabha and Raja sabha.

The Deity of Nataraja is enshrined in the Chit sabha.

In the Kanaka sabha (golden hall) lying adjacent to the Chit Sabha, poojas are offered. The ceiling of these two sabhas are gold plated.

The Nritya Sabha, which is richly sculpted in the form of a chariot drawn by horses houses the images of Nataraja in Urdhava Tandava pose, image of Sarabheswara.

The Deva Sabha is a spacious hall meant for the celebration of important festivals and houses the festival images of the Pancha Murtis (Somaskandar, Parvati, Vinayaka, Subramanya and Chandikeswara) and other deities.

The Raja sabha measuring 103 metres by 58 metres is housed in a 1000 pillared hall in the outermost prakaram. Tradition holds that Sekhizhar recited the Peria Puranam here.

Chidambaram is also called as Thillai Vanam because previously this area was filled Thillai trees. (vanam meaning forest and thillai trees – botanical name Exocoeria agallocha, a species of mangrove trees – which currently grows in the Pichavaram wetlands near Chidambaram).

Meaning of Chidambaram

The word Chidambaram may be derived from chit, meaning "consciousness", and ambaram, meaning "sky" (from aakasam or aakayam); it refers to the chidaakasam, the sky of consciousness, which is the ultimate aim one should attain according to all the Vedas and scriptures.Another theory is that it is derived from chit + ambalam. Ambalam means a "stage" for performing arts. The chidakasam is the state of supreme bliss or aananda and Lord Natarajar is the symbolic representation of the supreme bliss or aananda natanam. Saivaites believe that a visit to Chidambaram leads to liberation.Yet another theory is that it is derived from the word chitrambalam, from chithu meaning "play or dances of God" and ambalam meaning "stage"

Chidambaram Mahatmyam – The Legend.

Throughout all of eternity Lord Vishnu rests on Shesha, the Cosmic Snake, in Vaikuntha. Once his weight suddenly seemed to have greatly increased. Shesha asked Vishnu “why are you so much heavier, Lord?” The Lord answered “I have had a vision of Shiva doing his Cosmic Dance. I have expanded with happiness at the sight.” Shesha requested Vishnu to tell him all about Shiva’s Dance. And Lord told him everything as follows.

In the forest called Daruvanna live a community of Rishis or Seers in a hermitage. Through the performance of rituals they had achieved great knowledge and power, but they had not realized the importance of Divine Grace. Lord Shiva requested Lord Vishnu to accompany him to enlighten the Rishis, by showing them human power and knowledge were helpless without intervnetion of Divine Grace. To accomplish this purpose the two deities applied their power of Maya or Illusion. Shiva entered the hermitage of the Rishis as Bhikshatana or a Mendicant. With dazzling beauty, wearing only a mendicant’s sandals, the wives and daughters of the Rishis fell madly in love with him, forgetting everything else, and completely loosing themselves. Vishnu transformed himself into a beautiful woman called Mohini, and an alluring dancer. As soon as the Rishis saw Mohini dance before them, they too lost all sense and rationality and with desire burning in their hearts they followed Mohini around like madmen.

When some of the Rishis realized what was happening they became enraged and started a great magical fire sacrifice against Lord Shiva-Bhikshatana. First they called from the fire – A tiger, but when tiger attacked Lord Shiva he laughed, and killed the ferocious animal with his hands, tearing off its skin and wearing it for a loin cloth. Next the Rishis send poisonous snakes, which he draped around his arms and neck, as jewelry. Then Shiva prepared to perform his Cosmic Dance. His two other arms appeared and his third eye shone in his forehead. The Rishis called a fierce dwarf from their magical fire, but Shiva’s dancing foot simply took him for a pedestal and danced. Finally the Rishis send the fire itself to destroy the Cosmic Dancer, but he just took it on to his left hand. And from the mantras that the Rishis used against him he made his anklets. Then the Lord danced his Tandava or Cosmic Dance. Its full power made the Rishis fall to the ground. It made Lord Vishnu shake, and even Parvati, the goddess consort of Shiva, who joined them to witness her husbands dance, was overcome with fear. But the Lord danced smiling, showing his raised foot. The Rishis understood the Lord’s Divine Grace, and attained realization. They started to dance themselves and all of creation danced with them. After Vishnu has told Shesha about his vision of Shiva’s Cosmic Dance, Shesha longs for only one thing: to see Shiva’s dance himself. Vishnu grants him permission to leave him for a while, so Shesha too will be able to experience Shiva’s dance.

After Shesha performed austerities for long ages, Shiva appeared before him, and offers him the fulfillment of any wish. Shesha has only one wish: to witness Shiva’s Tandava.

In fulfillment of Shesha’s wish, Shiva announced to him that he will dance at the appropriate and tangible moment on earth in the Sabha in the Tillai forest. This forest is situated on the middle point of the earth, and constituted its heart centre, the Lotus Space. Through it passes the main energy nadi, or vein, of our mother planet. This place is called Cit Ambara, the Ether of Consciousness. Shiva told that he, Shesha, would be born on earth from human parents, and that he would be called Patanjali. After growing up he will travel to Tillai, where he will meet another saint, called Vyagrapada the Tigerfooted. And both will perform tapas and worship, until the appointed time for Shiva to perform his Cosmic Dance in the Sabha has arrived.

All these things foretold by Shiva to Shesha come to pass. As Patanjali reached the Tillai forest he found on the southern bank of the lotus pond the saint Vyagrapada, worshipping the Mulasthana Linga and performing austerities. Vyagrapada had come to the Tillai forest following the advice of his father, the Rishi Madhyandina. To worship the Mulasthana Linga he used to gather flowers in the early morning, but however early he collected the flowers, insects had already damaged them. Deeply upset that his worship was not as complete or perfect as he aimed for, he cried to Lord Shiva to help him. In answer to his prayer Shiva gave him tiger claws for hand and feet, enabling him to find his way through the thick forest at night to gather flowers long before daybreak, before the insects could inflict their damage.

From then on both saints did the worship and the austerities together, as they waited for the appointed time for Shiva to dance in the Sabha. As that time approached also the 3000 munivars (later called Deekshithars) arrived in the forest to await the Lord’s dance.

When that day arrived, it was announced with the sound of drums and conches. A rain of flowers fell from heaven, and in the Sabha appeared a light of a thousand suns and moons. In the middle of this light mass appeared Shiva’s form, dancing his Ananda Tandava, and showing his Lotus Foot. His is an un-earthly beauty, while his peaceful smile shines on all. He was together with Parvati, who witnessed his dance. All those present, Devatas, demons and humans rejoiced, almost fainting, and all joined in his dance, dancing themselves. Then Shiva offered the two saints to make a wish. They wished that Shiva would forever perform his Ananda Tandava or Dance of Bliss in the golden Sabha of Chidambaram, for the entire world to experience. So that any human who desired this could also reach His lifted Lotus Foot and realize liberation. Soon after the king Sveta Varman came to the Tillai forest. This king was forced to give up his kingdom after being infected with a skin disease called ‘white spot’, a form of leprosy. Lord Nataraja ordered the two saints Vyagrapada and Patanjali to let the king take a bath in the lotus pond, now called the Shiva Ganga, that he may be healed. After re-emerging from the water the king’s skin had become golden, his name becoming Hiranya Varman or ‘golden coloured’. And he was taken to the Sabha to see Nataraja’s Ananda Tandava. Overtaken with emotions the king fell on earth and offered his life-long service to the Dancing Shiva. He was consecrated by the 3000 munivars, and received from Vyagrapada the Tiger banner, signifying his kingship and valor. The king then rebuild beautifully the temple and the city around it. And established the main festivals of the yearly cycle in the temple.

Yet another legend, commemorating the dance duel between the doyens of dance Shiva and Kali is associated with Chidambaram. There was a dance competition between Shiva and Kali. Lord Shiva performed a particular dance style and Kali would perform the same. Lord Vishnu was the judge for this dance show. After a long time , Lord Shiva did the most difficult step of dance style. He is said to have lifted his left foot towards the sky in the Urdhva Tandava posture, a definite male gesture, which out of adherence to protocol, Kaali as a lady could not reciprocate, thereby causing Lord Shiva to emerge victorious. Bound in feminine traits, Kali could not do that step.  Though defeated, She became furious.  Lord Brahma appeared there and praised Kali as Veda Nayaki and begged Her to calm down with four faces representing the four Vedas.  Kali responded to Brahma’s prayer and granted darshan to Him as Brahma Chamundeeswari.  A beautiful deity is made in this form separately and installed in the temple. This dance legend is portrayed in the Nritya Sabha, one of the halls within the Chidambaram temple

How To Reach Chidambaram

The nearest Airport is in Tiruchirappalli, 167 km south west from the place of Chidambaram.

By train Chidambaram can be reached from Chennai-Madras in approximately six hours. From Kumbakonam in two hours and from Tanjore in four hours.

Chidambaram is reachable by bus from almost anywhere in Tamil Nadu. From the north or east via Pondicherry or Cuddalore. From the south via Tanjore, Kumbakonam or Mayuram. Accommodation in all tariff levels is readily available.