Satapatha-Brâhmana, Part 101

BY: SUN STAFF - 14.9 2018

A serial presentation of the Satapatha Brahmana, translated by Julius Eggeling in 1882.

 

Second Kânda - The Agnyâdhâna, The Agnihotra, The Pindapitriyagña, The Âgrayaneshti, And The Kâturmâsyâni

FIFTH ADHYÂYA. SECOND BRÂHMANA 
B. THE VARUNAPRAGHÂSA OFFERINGS – Part One

2:5:2:1 - 1. Now it was by means of the Vaisvadeva that Pragâpati produced living beings. The beings produced by him ate (ghas) Varuna's barley corn; for originally the barley belonged to Varuna. And from their eating Varuna's barley corn the name Varunapraghâsâh (is derived).

2:5:2:2 - 2. Varuna seized them; and on being seized by Varuna, they became rent all over 1; and they lay and sat them down breathing in and breathing out. The out-breathing and in-breathing forsook them not, but all the other deities 2 forsook them; and owing to these two, the creatures did not perish.

2:5:2:3 - 3. Pragâpati healed them by means of that oblation: both the creatures that were born and those that were unborn he delivered from Varuna's noose; and his creatures were born without disease and blemish.

2:5:2:4 - 4. Now when this (sacrificer) performs these offerings in the fourth month (after the Vaisvadeva), he does so either because thus Varuna does not seize his offspring, or because the gods performed (the same offering); and both the children that have been born to him and those that are yet unborn he thereby delivers from Varuna's noose, and his children are born without disease and blemish. This is why he performs these offerings in the fourth month.

2:5:2:5 - 5. At this (sacrifice) there are two altars and two fires 1. The reason why there are two altars and two fires, is that thereby one frees the creatures from Varuna's noose both ways,--on the one side (he frees) the upright, and on the other those looking to the ground: this is why there are two altars and two fires.

2:5:2:6 - 6. On the northern (uttara) altar he raises the uttara-vedi (upper or north altar), not on the southern one. Varuna, doubtless, is the nobility, and the Maruts are the people: he thus makes the nobility superior (uttara) to the people; and hence people here serve the Kshatriya, placed above them. This is why he raises the uttara-vedi on the northern, not on the southern altar.

2:5:2:7 - 7. In the first place there are those five oblations 1. For by means of those five oblations Pragâpati produced the creatures, with them he freed the creatures both ways from Varuna's noose,--on the one side (he freed) the upright, and on the other those that tend to the ground: this is why there are those five oblations.

2:5:2:8 - 8. Then follows a cake on twelve potsherds for Indra and Agni. Indra and Agni indeed are the out-breathing and in-breathing: thus this is like doing a good turn to one who has done him a good turn; for it is owing to these two that his creatures 1 did not perish. Hence he now restores his creatures by means of the out-breathing and in-breathing, bestows out-breathing and in-breathing on them: this is why there is a cake on twelve potsherds for Indra and Agni.

2:5:2:9 - 9. On both (fires) there is an oblation of curds. It is on milk that the creatures subsist and by means of milk that they were preserved: hence it is with that by which they were preserved and whereon they subsist, that he delivers them both ways from Varuna's noose,--on the one side (he delivers) the upright and on the other those looking to the ground. This is why there is an oblation of curds on both (fires).

2:5:2:10 - 10. The northern one is offered to Varuna, since it was Varuna who seized his (Pragâpati's) creatures: hence he thereby directly delivers them from Varuna's noose. The southern one is offered to the Maruts. It is for the sake of diversity that it is offered to the Maruts; for a repetition he would undoubtedly commit, were he to offer both to Varuna. Moreover, it was from the south that the Maruts intended to slay his (Pragâpati's) creatures, and with that share he propitiated them: for this reason the southern (oblation of curds) belongs to the Maruts.

2:5:2:11 - 11. Upon both (dishes of curds) he scatters karîra-fruits 2; for with karîra-fruits Pragâpati bestowed happiness (ka) on the creatures, and so does he (the sacrificer) thereby bestow happiness on the creatures.

2:5:2:12 - 12. Upon both of them he also scatters samî-leaves; for with samî-leaves Pragâpati bestowed bliss (sam) on the creatures, and so does he now thereby bestow bliss on the creatures.

2:5:2:13 - 13. Then follows a cake on one potsherd for Ka (Pragâpati); for by that cake on one potsherd to Ka Pragâpati indeed bestowed happiness (ka) on the creatures, and so does he (the sacrificer) now bestow happiness on the creatures by that one-cup cake: this is why there is a cake on one potsherd for Ka.

2:5:2:14 - 14. And on the first day, after husking and slightly roasting barley on the Dakshinâgni, they prepare therewith as many dishes of karambha 1as there are members of the (sacrificer's) family, exceeded by one.

2:5:2:15 - 15. At the same time they also prepare a ram and a ewe; and if he be able to procure wool other than from edaka sheep, let him wash it and stick it on both the ram and the ewe; but should he not be able to procure wool other than from edaka sheep, tufts of kusa grass may also be (used).

2:5:2:16 - 16. The reason why there are a ram and a ewe is chat the ram manifestly is Varuna's victim, so that he thereby manifestly delivers the creatures from Varuna's noose. They are made of barley, because it was when they (the creatures) had eaten barley that Varuna seized them. A pair they form, so that he delivers the creatures from Varuna's noose through conjugal union.

2:5:2:17 - 17. The ewe he places on the southern, and the ram on the northern dish of curds; for in this way alone a proper union is effected, since the woman lies on the left (or north) side of the man.

2:5:2:18 - 18. The Adhvaryu places all the (other) sacrificial dishes upon the northern altar; and the Pratiprasthâtri places on the southern altar that dish of curds (belonging to the Maruts).

2:5:2:19 - 19. Having thus placed the sacrificial dishes, he churns the fire; and having churned it and placed it on (the hearth) 1, he offers thereon, The Adhvaryu in the first place says (to the Hotri) 2, 'Recite to the fire that is being kindled!' Both (the Adhvaryu and the Pratiprasthâtri) then put firewood on (the fire) and both reserve one kindling-stick each; and they both pour out the first libation (âghâra). Thereupon the Adhvaryu says, 'Agnîdh, trim the fire!' Although the summons is given, the trimming does not take place (immediately) 3

2:5:2:20 - 20. Thereupon the Pratiprasthâtri returns (to where the sacrificer's wife is seated). When he is about to lead the wife away, he asks her, 'With whom holdest thou intercourse?' Now when a woman who belongs to one (man) carries on intercourse with another, she undoubtedly commits (a sin) against Varuna. He therefore thus asks her, lest she should sacrifice with a secret pang in her mind; for when confessed the sin becomes less, since it becomes truth; this is why he thus asks her. And whatever (connection) she confesses 1 not, that indeed will turn out injurious to her relatives.

2:5:2:21 - 21. He then makes her say the text (III, 44), 'We invoke the Maruts, the voracious consumers of enemies, delighting in their porridge.' This (verse) is (of like import) as the invitatory prayer she therewith invites them to these dishes 2.