Satapatha-Brâhmana, Part 46

BY: SUN STAFF - 25.5 2018

A serial presentation of the Satapatha Brahmana, translated by Julius Eggeling in 1882.


First Kânda - The Darsapûrnamâsa-Ishtî or New And Full-Moon Sacrifices

Seventh Adhyâya – Third Brâhmana, Part Three

1:7:3:26 - 26. Here now they say, 'Let them cook the sacrificial dishes on the Âhavanîya; for thence, assuredly, the gods ascended to heaven, and therewith they went on worshipping and toiling: therein we will cook the sacrificial dishes; therein we will perform the sacrifice! For, as it were, a displacement [1] of the sacrificial dishes would take place, if they were to cook them on the Gârhapatya. The Âhavanîya is the sacrifice: we will perform the sacrifice in the sacrifice!'

1:7:3:27 - 27. However, they also do cook on the Gârhapatya, arguing, 'The former is indeed âhavanîya (i.e. "suitable for a burnt-offering"); but that one, surely, is not (intended) for this,--viz. that they should cook uncooked (food) on it; but it is (intended) for this,--viz. that they should offer up cooked (food) on it.' He may therefore do it on whichever (fire) he pleases.

1:7:3:28 - 28. That sacrifice spake, 'I dread nakedness.' 'What is unnakedness for thee?' 'Let them strew (sacrificial grass) all round me!' For this reason they strew (sacrificial grass) all round the fire. 'I dread thirst.' 'How art thou to be satiated?' 'May I satiate myself after the priest has been satisfied!' Let him therefore, on the completion of the sacrifice, order that the priest be satisfied; for then he satisfies the sacrifice.



200:1 Or perhaps, he was left behind with, or in, the remains (of the sacrifice);' vâstu being evidently also taken in this sense by our author, in par. 7.

200:2 The text has ayatayâ merely, which, to become intelligible, clearly requires some noun, which may have been lost here. Sâyana is silent on this point. In Dr. Muir's version of the legend, Original Sanskrit Texts, IV, p. 202, the word is left untranslated. I am inclined to supply some such noun as heti, 'weapon;' cf. XII, 7, 3, 20, where this very word is used in connection with Rudra: in later times it is also specially applied to Agni's weapon or flame (gihvâ, 'tongue'). It is not impossible, however, that we have to supply tanvâ ('with his raised body, or self'). To mâ vi srâkshîh (for which the Kânva recension reads mâ 'sthâh), 'do not hurl,' and to samvivarha ('he drew back'), Sâyana supplies yagñam, 'sacrifice:' hence he apparently takes it thus,--'do not scatter (the sacrifice),'--'he kept (the sacrifice) together and did not injure it in any way.'

201:1 On the identification of Agni with Rudra, see also VI, 1, 3, 7; and Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, IV, p. 339 seq.

201:2 Passages such as this and VI, 1, 3, 7 seq. are of considerable interest, as showing, on the one hand, the tendency towards identifying and blending originally distinct and apparently local Vedic gods, especially Rudra, with the person of Agni, the representative of the divine power on earth in the later Vedic triad; and, on the other hand, the origin of the conception of Siva, in the pantheistic system of the post-Vedic period. On our passage, see also Weber, Ind. Stud. II, p. 37; I, p. 189; Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, IV, p. 328.

202:1 That is, according to Sâyana, on the Âhavanîya fire-place.

202:2 The anuvâkyâ for the Svishtakrit is Rig-veda X, 2, 1: piprîhi devân̐ usato yavishtha ('gladden thou the longing gods, O youngest!') &c. Âsv. S. I, 6, 2. 202:3 See I, 4, 2, 16-17. These formulas (nigada) of enumeration (ayad agnir agneh priyâ dhâmâni, &c.--yakshad agner hotuh priyâ dhâmâni, &c.) form part of the offering-formula. The yâgyâ proper, however, which they precede is Rig-veda VI, 15, 14, agne yad adya viso adhvarasya hotah ['O Agni, Hotri of the cult! when this day (thou comest) to the men '], &c.

203:1 Or, resort, abode, dhâman.

203:2 Viz. at the 'devatânâm âvahanam,' cf. I, 4, 2, 17; p. 118, n. 1.

203:3 'Âyagatâm egyâ ishah.' Mahîdhara, on Vâg. S. XXI, 47, interprets it thus: 'May these (ishah) desirous (creatures), fit for sacrifice, sacrifice properly!' Similarly perhaps Sâyana on our passage.

204:1 Here krinotu is omitted in the text, but cf. Vâg. S. XXI, 47; Taitt. Br. III, 5, 7, 6; Âsv. S. I, 6, 5. Dr. Hillebrandt, Altind. Neu- and Vollmondsopfer, p. 11 construes it with the preceding formula: 'er mache darbringungswerth die Speisen; er, der Wesenkenner, nehme beim Opfer das havis an.' (?)

204:2 Mahat, 'grosses.'

204:3 See Vâg. S. XIX, 26. Here the author, as usual (cf. p. 5 note), attempts to enhance the solemnity of the ceremony by identifying it with the tritîya-savana, or evening libation at the Soma-sacrifice, both offerings constituting the final ceremonies in the main performance of the respective sacrifices. We shall, however, see (cf. I, 8, 3, 25) that as at the evening libation the remains of the Soma are offered up, so also are the remains of havis offered to the visve devâh at the conclusion of the present sacrifice. At IV, 4, 5, 17 it is more especially the offering of rice-cake to Agni and Varuna, at the evening libation, which is identified with the svishtakrit.

204:4 See p. 202, note 2.

204:5 See p. 202, note 3.

205:1 Avîryam; cf. II, 1, 2, 9, where the (sarîra) empty body (of Pragâpati) is called a vâstu ayagñiyam avîryam. See also above, I, 7, 3, 7, where we met with vâstu in the sense of 'remainder, that which remains,' as Sâyana also seems to take it here.

205:2 Indriyam, literally 'Indra's power.' The trishtubh often (eg. Rig-veda X, 130, 5) appears specially related to Indra; and the hymns addressed to him are almost entirely in this metre. Taitt. S. VII, 1, 1, 4 it is said to have been created by Pragâpati from his own chest and arms, immediately after Indra, and together with the Brihat-sâman, the Râganya, and the ram; and that these are therefore vîryâvant, having been created out of vîrya (i.e. the seats of 'manly power').

205:3 For this symbolical explanation see Taitt. S. VII, 1, 1, 5, where the anushtubh is said to have been created by Pragâpati, by his fourth and last creative act, from his feet, together with the Vairâga-sâman, the Sûdra, and the horse; the two last named being, therefore, styled 'bhûta-saṅkrâmin (? subservient to creatures).' I do not find it stated anywhere, what anushtubh verses may optionally be taken for the anuvâkyâ and yâgyâ of the svishtakrit.

206:1 That is, Indradyumna Bhâllabeya, as the Kânva recension reads here and II, 1, 4, 6. Cf. X, 6, 1, 1.

206:2 He makes, as usual, an under-layer (upastarana) of butter in the guhû; cuts a piece from the north part of each of the two cakes (or of the one cake and of both the sweet and the sour milk constituting the sânnâyya); and thereupon bastes the pieces twice (not once) with butter.

206:3 See above, par. 3. The same quarter is assigned to Rudra, IX, 1, 1, 10. See also Weber, Ind. Stud, I, p. 225.

207:1 The Baudhây. Sulvas. (66) lays it down as the rule that the Brâhmana has to construct his Âhavanîya fire at the distance of eight prakramas (step of two padas or feet each) to the east of the Gârhapatya, the Râganya at the distance of eleven, and the Vaisya at the distance of twelve, steps. Thibaut, Pandit X, p. 22.

207:2 See 1, 2, 5, 14.

208:1 Apaskhala. Sâyana takes skhala to mean winnowing- (or threshing-) floor (? khala): hence apaskhala would mean 'the leaping (of the husk, &c.) out of the winnowing-floor.' The Kânva MS. reads, 'apaskhala iva sa havishâm yad gârhapatyah' (? 'the Gârhapatya is to the sacrificial food the outside of a winnowing-floor, as it were.')