Satapatha-Brâhmana, Part 94

BY: SUN STAFF - 31.8 2018

A serial presentation of the Satapatha Brahmana, translated by Julius Eggeling in 1882.

 

Second Kânda - The Agnyâdhâna, The Agnihotra, The Pindapitriyagña, The Âgrayaneshti, And The Kâturmâsyâni

FOURTH ADHYÂYA. SECOND BRÂHMANA. 
III. THE PINDAPITRIYAGÑA OR OBLATION OF OBSEQUIAL CAKES TO THE FATHERS – Part Two

2:4:2:16 - 16. He then takes the water-pitcher and makes (the fathers) wash (their hands ) [4], merely [5] saying, 'N.N., wash thyself!' (naming) the sacrificer's father; 'N.N., wash thyself!' (naming) his grandfather; 'N.N., wash thyself!' (naming) his great-grandfather. As one would pour out water (for a guest) when he is about to take food, so in this case.

2:4:2:17 - 17. Now those (stalks of sacrificial grass) are severed with one stroke, and cut off near the root;--the top belongs to the gods, the middle part to men, and the root-part to the fathers: therefore they are cut off near the root. And with one stroke they are severed, because the fathers have passed away once for all.

2:4:2:18 - 18. He spreads them (along the line) with their tops towards the south. Thereon he presents [to the fathers the three (round) cakes of rice] [1]. He presents them thus [2];--for to the gods they offer thus; for men they ladle out (the food in any way they please) [3]; and in the case of the fathers they do in this very way: therefore he presents (the cakes to them) thus.

2:4:2:19 - 19. With, 'N.N., this for thee!' he presents (one cake) to the sacrificer's father. Some add, 'and for those who come after thee!' but let him not say this, since he himself is one of those to whom (it would be offered) in common [4]: let him therefore merely say, 'N.N., this for thee!' as to the sacrificer's father; 'N.N., this for thee!' as to his grandfather; and 'N.N., this for thee!' as to his great-grandfather. He presents (the food) in an order (directed) away from the present time, because it is away from hence that the fathers have once for all departed.

2:4:2:20 - 20. He then mutters (Vâg. S. II, 31 a), 'Here, O fathers, regale yourselves: like bulls come hither, each to his own share!' whereby he says, 'Eat ye each his own share!'

2:4:2:21 - 21. He then turns round (to the left), so as to face the opposite (north) side: for the fathers are far away from men; and thereby he also is far away (from the fathers). 'Let him remain (standing with bated breath) until his breath fail, ' say some, 'for thus far extends the vital energy.' However [1], having remained so for a moment--

2:4:2:22 - 22. He again turns round (to the right) and mutters (Vâg. S. II, 31 b), 'The fathers have regaled themselves: like bulls they have come each to his own share;' whereby he means to say, 'They have eaten each his own share [2].'

2:4:2:23 - 23. Thereupon he takes the water-pitcher and makes them wash themselves [3], merely saying, 'N.N., wash thyself [1]!' (naming) the sacrificer's father; 'N.N., wash thyself!' (naming) his grandfather; 'N.N., wash thyself!' (naming) his great-grandfather. Even as one would pour out (water for a guest) when he has taken his meal, so here.

2:4:2:24 - 24. He then pulls down the tuck [2] (of the sacrificer's garment) and performs obeisance. The tuck is sacred to the fathers (pitridevatyâ): therefore he performs obeisance to them after pulling down the tuck. Now obeisance means worship (or sacrifice): hence he thereby renders them worthy of worship. Six times he performs obeisance; for there are six seasons, and the fathers are the seasons: for this reason he performs obeisance six times. He mutters (Vâg. S. II, 32 g), 'Give us houses, O fathers!' for the fathers are the guardians (îsate) of houses; and this is the prayer for blessing at this sacrificial performance. After the cakes have been put back (in the dish containing the remains of boiled rice) he (the sacrificer) smells at (the rice); this (smelling) being the sacrificer's share. The (stalks of sacrificial grass) cut with one stroke he puts on the fire; and he also again throws away the firebrand 1.

 

Footnotes

361:1 Yagñopavîtin, 'sacrificially invested, ' i.e. wearing the sacrificial cord in the ordinary way, on the left shoulder and under the right arm. In any performance connected with the deceased ancestors, the cord has to be shifted from the left to the right shoulder and under the left arm (prâkînopavîtin, lit. 'eastward invested').

362:1 Sasvat = 'repeatedly, ' Comm.; sasvad api, 'endlich auch (at last also), ' St. Petersb. Dict.

363:1 Dakshinâsînah; the Commentator interprets it by 'sitting south of the cart.'

363:2 The Kânva text has, --etam karum grihnâti, 'he takes that pot, or potful, (of rice).' Doubtless, he is to take from the cart the quantity of rice sufficient for the offerings and put it in the pot (karu). According to Kâty. IV, I, 5-7 he is to take the but-partly-filled pot, or a spoonful (or, according to the Schol., rather less than a spoonful).

363:3 Compare the detailed account in I, 1, 4, 1 seq.

364:1 According to Taitt. Br. I, 3, 10, 3, some make a third oblation, viz. as Sâyana states, to Yama (the chief of the fathers), with the formula, 'To Yama, accompanied by the Aṅgiras and fathers, svadhâ! namah!' see note 3.

364:2 The commentary on Kâty. IV, 1, 7 supplies the following particulars:--Having removed the pot off the Dakshina fire on the south side, the Adhvaryu takes it, along the east, to the north side of the fire. He then shifts the sacrificial cord to his left shoulder (as he is about to offer to gods), puts three sticks on the fire, and sitting down with his face towards the east offers some boiled rice with the pot-ladle (mekshana).

364:3 The Taittirîyas use svadhâ! namah instead of svâhâ! They also offer first to Soma, with 'To Soma, drank by the fathers' (but cf. Taitt. Br. I, 6, 9, 5), and then to (Yama, and finally to) Agni. Taitt. Br. I, 3, 10, 2-3.

364:4 See I, 7, 3, 1 seq.

364:5 Or west (gaghanena) of the fire [from north to south], according to the Kânva text; optionally, according to Kâty. IV, 1, 8. Kâty. also gives the text 'Expelled are the Asuras, the Rakshas, seated on the altar' (Vâg. S. II, 29 c) to be muttered during the act.

365:1 Or, as the Commentator takes svadhayâ, '(attracted) by the svadhâ (offering to the fathers).'

365:2 That is, according to the Schol., assuming the shapes of deceased ancestors.

365:3 This explanation of the words parâpurah and nipurah, proposed by the Scholiast, is doubtful.

365:4 The Adhvaryu (having again shifted the sacrificial cord to his right shoulder) pours water through the "fathers' space" (pitritîrtha, i.e. the space between the thumb and fore-finger), from right to left, into the line, at its beginning, centre, and end. Kâty. IV, 1, 10, and Schol.

365:5 See paragraph 19.

366:1 According to the Paddhati on Kâty. the first ball is to be of the size of a fresh âmalaka, or fruit of the Emblic Myrobalan, and each of the two others is to be larger than the preceding one.

366:2 Here the teacher indicated by gesture the part of the hand sacred to the fathers (see p. 365, note 4); and then in the same way that dedicated to the gods, viz. the tip of the fingers.

366:3 The Kânva recension reads here also 'thus they take out (the food) for men;' the part of the hand dedicated to man being, according to the commentary on Kâty. IV, 1, 10, the part about the little finger (kanishthikâpradesa).

366:4 Svayam vai teshâm saha yeshâm saha. According to the commentary, the author apparently means to say, that if he were to add, 'and those who come after thee (i.e. after his father), ' he would include the sacrificer himself, and the latter would consequently offer the pinda to himself. The form of the presentation-formula rejected by our author is the one adopted in Âsval. Sr. II, 6, 15, except that 'atra' is added there ('who here come after thee'). The Kânva text mentions and rejects the two alternative readings, 'ye ka tvâm anvâñkah' and 'yâms ka tvam anvaṅ asi' ('and those whom thou followest'). In Taitt. Br. I, 3, 10, no presentation-formula is mentioned at all.

367:1 The Kânva recension has tad u instead of sa vai.

367:2 'Formerly the gods and men and fathers (deva-manushyâh pitarah) drank visibly together, but now they do so invisibly.' Sat. Br. III, 6, 2, 26.

367:3 Viz. by pouring water on the obsequial cakes. According to Âsval. Sr. II, 7, 5, and other treatises, he also puts down some ointment, oil, or butter on the pindas, saying, '(Father), N.N., anoint thyself!' &c.; see Donner, Pindap., p. 25.

368:1 See paragraph 19.

368:2 Nîvim udvrihya = paridhânîyasya vâsaso dasâ tâm udvrihya visramsya, Sâyana. According to Mahâdeva, he (who presents the pindas, viz. either the Adhvaryu or the sacrificer) has previously to put on a garment with a tuck (nîvimat paridhânam), i.e. with the dasâ, or unwoven edge of the upper garment, tucked up under the waistband. This he is to pull out. Kâtyâyana has the following rules: IV, I, 15, Having made (them) wash themselves as before, and having loosened (visramsya) the tuck, he makes obeisance with 'adoration to your vigour, O fathers!' &c. (Vâg. S. II, 32 a-f). [According to the Comm., he adds the formula, 'Give us houses, O fathers! we will give to you of what is (ours).' Vâg. S. II, 32, 9.] 16, With 'Put on this your garment, O fathers!' (Vâg. S. II, 32 h), he throws three threads (pieces of yarn), one on each cake. 17, Or, woollen fringe [or, wool or fringe (dasâ), according to others]. 18, Or, hairs of the sacrificer (pulled out from the chest near the heart), if he is advanced in years. 19, He pours [the water, left in the pitcher, on the cakes] with 'Ye (O waters) are a refreshing draught, ye, that bring sap, immortal ghee and milk and foaming mead: gladden my fathers!' (Vâg. S. II, 34.) 20, [The Adhvaryu] having laid (the cakes on the dish) the sacrificer smells at them. 21, The firebrand and the once-cut stalks of grass (he throws) into the fire. 22, The wife, if desirous of a son, eats the middle cake with, 'Bestow offspring on me, O fathers, a boy crowned with lotuses; that there may he a man here!' (Vâg. S. II, 33.) [According to the comment, the other two cakes are thrown into the water or fire; or eaten by a priest.] For other variations, see Donner, Pindapitriyagña. The Kânva recension, on the whole, agrees with our text.

369:1 The Kânva text has as follows: 'Therefore he says, Give us houses, O fathers!' He then smells at the pot (ukhâ): that is the sacrificer's share. They again put down the cakes together (with the rice in the pot! samavadadhati). The once-severed (stalks of grass) they put on the fire. The firebrand he again shifts to (the fire; apy-argati).