Kurukshetra, Part 6


BY: SUN STAFF - 15.7 2022

Saraswati Tank, Pehowa, Kurukshetra

From "A Tour in the Punjab", a report by Alexander Cunningham, published in Calcutta (1882) for the Archaeological Survey of India.

Godali. — Apagi Tirath. From this name I conclude that Godali must be somewhere on the line of Apaga or Aughvati River between Thanesar and Pharal.

Gabordn. — Gandharpa Tirath.

Gandho. — Budrapara, Gangi, Mandakini, and Konti Tiraths.

Gohana. — Gavam Bhavana Tirath. The name of the place appears to be only a contracted form of that of the shrine.

Gumthala, 4 miles to south-south-west of Pehoa. Soma Tirath.

Habari, 5 miles to south-west of Pundar-Suraj-Kund.

Hat. — Pancha Nidha and Konti Tirath.

Indrabari. — Indra Tirath, where Indra performed tapasya.

Jhind. — Bhuteswar, Soma, Sukra, Asidhara, Jwala, Maleswara, and Surya Kund Tiraths.

Johar. — Jonahrada or Jonasara Tirath.

Kalua. — Suraj Kund and Jajali Kund Tiraths.

Kalasi. — Kindan, Bakarani, Kinjan, and Kalasi Tiraths.

Kailat. — Kapila-hrada Tirath, which gives its name to the place.

Kaithal has shrines dedicated to each of the seven Planets, Surya, Soma, Mangala, Budha, Vrihaspati, Sukra, Sanichar, as well as Rahu and Ketu.

Kamoda, a small village in Kamd-vana or Kam-ban, also called Kamyakh-ban, where there is a shrine to Kameshwara Mahadeva with two brick ghats and two brick temples. But the most frequented still is a small brick cell, which the people call Draupadi ka bhandir, where Draupadi, the wife of the Five Pandava brothers, is said to have prepared dinner for her husbands.

Karana, 4 miles to north of Kaithal Karandava and Kul-Tar Tiraths.

Kasan. — Sri Tirath.

Kasoyan. — Kayasodhan Tirath.

Kewadak. — Konti-kupa Tirath.

Khoddlwa or Kholwa, 6 miles to east of Kaithal Siva Kund Tirath.

Khedira-Mangar. — Kansiki Tirath.

Kheri-Sunagram, or Malin-Kheri-Tipan Tirath.

Kimdnch. — Kultaran Tirath.

Kol or Kul. — Kultaran Tirath.

Kopra or Kopar, 2 miles to south of Nagdu Kansiki-hrada, and Panca Tirthi Tiraths.

Kora. — Kambya Tirath.

Kuchrana. — Kusa Tirath and Surya Kund.

Kulodharan or Kultaran, near Kaithal- Kultaran, Kalasi, and Kaili Kund Tiraths.

Lakhnor. — Kameswara Tirath.

Lodhara. — Losa-Udhara Tirath.

Manas, 4 miles to the west of Kaithal- Manushya Tirath and Man-sar Tirath.

Mangna, 5 miles to west of Pehoa, Sapta Saraswat Tirath or the " Seven Saraswatis."

Mutor. — Mukata Tirath, which gives its name to the village.

Mewali, 2 miles to south-south-east of Pharal-Kansiki Tirath and Drupada-vati Tirath.

Mohana, or Madhuvana, 4 miles to south of Pharal-Madhuvati Tirath, Budhavala Tirath, Kausiki Tirath, and Datpavati Tirath.

Nagdu, 11 miles to south-south-west of Thanesar-Naga-hrada Tirath, Narakatar on the Sarasuti, near Aujas Ghat to west of Thanesar, Bhikam Kund or Bhisham pitaka Tirath. Here Bhikham or Bhishama, the general of the Kauravas army, was killed, and his body burned on the bank of the pool.

Nisang, at the junction of the Kausiki and Chotang Rivers, 14 miles to west of Karnal-Misrak and Nimkhar Tiraths. These two names are also found together in Oudh on the Gumti.

Okashaithi, between Nisang and Taraori.

Parasara, near Balu-Parasara Tirath, where the holy man performed tapasya.

Papandda, or Pabnawa, on the Aughvati River, 11 miles to the south-west of Thanesar, Pavanahrada Tirath, and Kapila Muni Tirath. Pavanida is a contraction of Pavanahrada, or the " Breezy Tank."

Pharal, in Palki-Ban, on the Aughvati River, 17 miles to south-west of Thanesar, Phalki Tirath, Drishadwati Tirath, Mausar, Surya Kund, Sumahat, Panikhat, Rishi, and Sukra Tirath.

Pindara Soma and Pindara Tirath.

Prithudaka or Pehoa, on the Sarsuti River, 14 miles to west of Thanesar. The place derives its name from Baja Prithu, the son of Vena Raja. Here Prithu performed the usual Sraddha, or funeral ceremonies, and for twelve days after the burning of his father's body he sat on the bank of the Saraswati offering water to all comers. Hence the spot was called Prithudaka, or Prithu's pool from daka, or udaka, "water," and the city which he afterwards built on the same spot was called by the same name.

The town of Pehoa, as it is usually called, is built partly upon the low ground and partly on an old mound as lofty as that of Thanesar, or from 30 to 40 feet high. Its antiquity is proved by the large size of its old bricks, which are 18 by 12 by 2 ½ and 3 inches. In the lower part of the western portion of the city there is a modern temple of Garibnath, who is said to have been a disciple of Gorakhnath. In the wall of this temple is fixed an inscription in 16 lines of Raja Bhoja Deva, the son of Rama Bhadra Deva, dated in Samvat 276, both in words and in figures. This date, as I have already made known, most probably refers to the era of Sri Harsha, which began in A.D. 607. The date of the inscription will therefore be A.D. 882, at which time, as we know from the Gwalior inscription of S. 933, or A.D. 876, there was reigning a powerful king of the same name, who is most probably the Raja Bhoja, that was contemporary with Sankara Varmma of Kashmir, between A.D. 883 and 901. In the midst of the bazar in the south-east quarter of the city there is a second inscription of 21 lines fixed in the wall of a dwelling house called Siddgir-ka-Haveli. The lower left-hand corner of this inscription is concealed in the wall of the building. Twenty-one lines are exposed, and some 7 or 8 lines more, for 9 inches in length, are hidden in the wall. I asked for permission to take the stone out of the wall for the purpose of copying the inscription, which is quite perfect, promising at the same time to replace it at my own expense, but the surly owner of the house refused, and the inscribed stone, which is now used as a seat outside the door of the building, will eventually be worn away until the letters become illegible.

Pehoa appeared to me to be quite as old as Thanesar. The mound on which the town stands is perhaps not so lofty as the old fort of Thanesar, but the coins and other remains that are found in the ruins are of the same kinds and of the same age. Amongst the terra-cotta remains I obtained one nearly perfect figure of a king seated, of which a drawing is given in the accompanying plate.