Gayatri mantras and explanations

By editor - 28.8 2015

1.  om bhur bhuvah svah tat savitur varenyam bhargo davasya  dhi­mahi dhiyo yo nah pracodayat

  om-  O  Lord; bhuvah- the planetary system;  bhuvah-  the  next higher planetary system; svah- the heavenly planets;  tat-  that;  savituh- of the sun; varenyam- worshipable; bhargah-  effulgence;  devasya- of the divine; dhimahi- let us meditate; dhiyah- medita­ tion; yah- who; nah- us; pracodayat- enthuses.

   "Let us meditate on that worshipable effulgence of  the divine sun who enthuses our meditation."

2. aim gurave namah

  aim-  (the word 'aim' is the seed-sound vibration of this  man­tra);  gurave- unto my spiritual master; namah- respectful  obei­sances.

   "I make my respectful obeisances unto my spiritual master."

3.  aim  gurudevaya  vidmahe krsnanandaya dhimahi  tan  no  guroh pracodayat.

   gurudevaya-  unto the spiritual master; vidamhe- try to  know; krsna-anandaya-  who is always in blissful  Krsna  consciousness;  dhimahi- let us meditate; tat- that; nah- us; guroh- the spiritu­ al master; pracodayat- enthuses.    "Let us try to understand my spiritual master who is always in  blissful  Krsna consciousness. Let me meditate on him  being  en­ thused as he enthused us.

4. klim gauraya namah.

   klim-  (the  word 'klim' is the seed-sound vibration  of  this mantra);  gauraya-  unto Lord Caitanya; namah-  respectful  obei­sances.

 

   "I make my respectful obeisances unto Lord Caitanya."

                  The Kama-bija Syllable Klim

            The  kama-bija  syllable  klim  is  described  as  situated  within  the hexagram's center the residence of Radha  and  Krsna.  All the words of the mantra expand from this bija (seed) klim, as  its  energy. Srila Visvantha Cakravarti Thakur has  written  Man­ trartha-dipika as an explanation of the bija mantra `klim':

            "The  Rasollasa-tantra describes the love  between  Radha and Krsna by means of the kama-bija:

                        kama-bijatmakah krsna

                                   rati-bijatmika radha

                        tayoh sankirtanad eva

                                   radha-krsnau prasidatah

 `Sri  Krsna is in the form of the kama-bija and Sri Radha  is  in the form of the rati-bija. By chanting both these bijas Radha and Krsna become pleased.'

            "First  of all, the meaning of the kama-bija is  as  fol­lows.  The  kama-bija is the seed of all desires and  wishes,  or  that  which  excites desires, or in other words, it is  the  seed  that  fulfills  all desires. The kama-bija is  described  in  the  Gautamiya-tantra in the following way:

                        vina bijena mantranam

                                   viphalam jayate phalam

                        pancalankara-samyutam

                                   bijam tu paramadbhutam

                                   ka-karas ca la-karas ca

                                   i-karas carddha-candrakah

                        candra-bindhus ca tad-yuktam

                                   kama-bijam udahrtam

  `A  mantra  is  ineffective without its bija.  The  kama-bija  is  exceptionally  wonderfully  because  of being  composed  of  five  ornaments:  k,  l, i, m, and the dot over the m. That  which  has  these five components is called kama-bija.'

            "Klim  is the one-syllable kama-bija. In  the  Gautamiya-tantra, its meaning is given as follows:

                                   klim-karad-asrjad visvam

                                   iti prana sruteh sirah

                        la-karat prthivi jata

                                   ka-karaj jala-sambhavah

 

                        i-karad vahnir utpanno

                                   nadad vayur ajayata

                        bindor akasa-sambhutir

                                   iti bhutatmako manuh

 `The  Upanisads  state  that the universe was  created  from  the syllable  klim. Water was produced from the k, earth from the  l,  fire from the i, air from m, and ether from the dot. This  mantra  is therefore fivefold.'

            "In the  Brhad-gautamiya-tantra  it is stated:

                        ka-karah purusah krsnah

                                   sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah

                        i-karah prakrti radha

                                   nitya-vrndavanesvari

                        las canandatmakam prema-

                                   sukham tayos ca kirtitam

                        cumbananda-madhuryam

                                   nada-binduh samiritah

 `K  is  Krsna with His personal form of eternity,  knowledge  and bliss.  I  is  His  energy Radha, who is  the  eternal  Queen  of  Vrndavana.  L is celebrated as the blissful happiness of love.  M  is the sweetness of the bliss occurring when They kiss.'

 

            "In the  Sanatkumara-samhita  the nature of the kama-bija's form is described:

                        atha sri-kama-bijayasya

                                   sariram vigrahatmakam

                        ari-krsna-sarirabhinna-

                                   ny aksarani kramat srnu

                        civuko 'tha griva caiva

                   kantah prasthas ca suvratah

                        i-karah skandho bahus ca

                                   kaphonir anguli-nakhah

           

                        arddha-candro vaksas tundah

                                   parse nabhih katis tatha

                        candra-bindav uru-janur

                        jangha gulphas ca padakah

 

                        parsnis capy angulf caiva

                                   nakhendur api narada

                        iti vigraha-rupas ca

                                   kama-bijatmako harih

 `O  Narada, the letters of the kama-bija constitute the  body  of Sri Krsna. Now listen as I explain them in order. K indicates His  head, forehead, brow, nose, eyes and ears; by l, His cheeks, jaw,  chin,  neck, throat and nape; by i His shoulders,  arms,  elbows,  fingers  and fingernails; by m, His chest, stomach, sides,  navel  and  hips; by the dot, His thighs, knees, shanks,  ankles,  feet,  soles,  toes  and  moon-like toenails. In this  way,  Sri  Hari's  transcendental form consists of the kama-bija.'

            "In this regards it has also been stated:

                        bijaksaram panca puspa-

                                   bana-tulyam kramat srnu

                        ka-karas camra-mukulo

                                   la-karas casokah smrtah

                        i-karo mallikaa-puspam

                                   madhavi carddha-candrakah

                        bindus ca bakula-puspam

                                   ete banah syur eva ca

 `The  letters  of  the kama-bija correspond to  the  five  flower arrows of Cupid. Now listen. K is the mango flower bud, l is  the  asoka flower, i is the jasmine blossom, m is the madhavi  flower,  and  the dot is the bakula flower. These letters are  those  very  same  arrows.'" In this way, Srila Visvanath  Cakravarti  Thakura  describes the kama-bija with so many meanings.

5.  klim caitanyaya vidmahe visvambharaya dhimahi tan  no  gaurah

pracodayat.

   caitanyaya- unto Lord Caitanya; vidmahe- try to know; visvamb­haraya-  who is the maintainer of the universe; dhimahi-  let  us  meditate;  tat- that; nah-us; gaurah- Lord Caitanya;  pracodayat-  enthuses.

   "Let  us meditate on Lord Caitanya, Who is understood  as  the Maintainer of the universe, and Who has enthused us to do so."]

6. klim krsnaya govindaya gopijana-vallabhaya svaha.

   krsnaya-  unto Lord Krsna; govindaya- unto Govinda;  gopijana- of  the  gopis; vallabhaya- unto the lover of the  gopis;  svaha- offering of oblations.

   "I make offering of oblations unto Lord Krsna, Who is Govinda, the Lover of the gopis."

               The Gopala Mantra of Eighteen Letters

            In  his  purport  to Text  three,  Srila  Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati defines mantra as "inaudibly recited, liberating, self- dedicatory,  transcendental sound." In transcendence there is  no  duality;  consequently the distinction between an object and  its  name  cease to exist in the spiritual world. Thus a  mantra  con­ sisting  of  Krsna's holy names is nondifferent from  the  person  Krsna.  This  transcendental phenomenon is experienced  when  one  "worships through the channel of the mantra" (mantro pasana).       Srila  Bhaktisiddhanta  Sarasvati further  states  that  the  "transcendental words contained in the said mantra being  differ­ ently  placed  make a manifestation of only one lila."  In  other  words, the specific arrangement of the mantras component words in  relationship to each other determine its meaning, as for  example  the  eighteen-syllable  mantra klim krsnaya  govindaya  gopijana- vallabhaya  svaha which particularly describes Sri Sri Radha  and  Krsna's transcendental pastimes. As will be clear from Text Four,  the  conjugal mood predominates in Krsna's  transcendental  abode  with  all  the  other rasas playing supporting  roles.   In  this  eighteen  syllable Gopala mantra, Krsna, Govinda, is  being  wor­ shiped  as the lover of the gopis. Yet based upon  one's  sthayi- bhava (eternal  loving mood), one will worship the mantra accord­ ingly with a specific corresponding emotion. [The science of rasa  will be delineated at length in Text 36.]

     The  eighteen-syllable   Gayatri mantra  is mentioned  in  the  Gopala-tapani Upanisad . Therein the four Kumaras questioned their  father  Brahma in such a way as to elicit  the  eighteen-syllable   Gayatri  as their father's reply:

      om munayo ha vai brahmanam ucuh. kah paramo devah? kuto

     mrtyur bibheti? kasya jnanenakhilam vijnatam bhavati?

     kenedam visvam samsaratiti?

       tad u hovaca brahmanah. krsno vai paramam daivatam.

     govindan mrtyur bibheti. gopijanavallabha-jnanena taj

     jnatam bhavati. svahayedam samsarati.

"Om.  Some sages said to the demigod Brahma: `Who is the  Supreme  Personality  of  Godhead? Whom does death fear? By  knowing  whom  does everything else become known? Who created this world.'"

     "Brahma  replied to them: `Krsna is the Supreme  Personality  of Godhead. Death fears Govinda. By understanding Gopijanavallab­ ha  everything becomes known. By pronouncing the word   svaha   the  Personality of Godhead created the world.'"

     In  his commentary to these verses, Srila Visvanatha  Cakra­ varti  Thakura  states, "The statement that death  fears  Govinda  means  that Krsna rescues the living entities from the  hands  of  death.  The name Gopijanavallabha means `Krsna, who is very  dear  to the  gopis .' By knowing Him, the entire spiritual and  material  world  becomes  known. The process of understanding  Him  is  de­ scribed  by  Lord Gopijanavallabha Himself in  the   Bhagavad-gita   (18.56)."

     The  four Kumaras were not yet satisfied for they wished  to  have a more elaborate description of Lord Krsna's qualities. They  therefore asked: "Who is Krsna? Who is Govinda? Who is Gopijanav­ allabha? What is  Svaha ?"

     Brahma replied as follows:

           papa-karsano go-bhumi-veda-vidito gopijanavidya

     kala-prerakas tan-maya ceti, sakalam param brahmaivaitat .

"Krsna  means He who delivers from sin, Govinda means He  who  is  famous  on the earth, in the  Vedas , and among the   surabhi   cows,  Gopijanavallabha means He who enchants the  gopis , and  Svaha  means  the potency of the Supreme. All these names refer to the  Supreme  Personality of Godhead."

     Srila  Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura further explains,  "The  name   papa-karsana  may also be interpreted to mean: 1.  He  whose  transcendental  pastimes  attract the minds of  even  the  sinful  conditioned souls, or 2. the merciful Supreme Person who liberat­ ed Putana, Agha, Kesi, and many other demons killed by Him.      "The  name Govinda means the Supreme Lord who is  famous  to  the   surabhi  cows of Vraja. He is glorified in the verses of  the   Vedas ,  and  He  is famous on the earth because  He  removed  the  burden of demoniac kings.

     "Govinda  also  means  He who protects the  cows,  land  and   Vedas .  Lord  Govinda is the supreme protector, who  rescues  the  living  entities from the hands of death. Gopijanavallabha  means  He  who  enchants the  gopis , who are all  manifestations  of  His   hladini   potency. The Lord enchants them with the  sweetness  His  handsomeness  and other transcendental qualities,  removes  their  materialism,  and grants them ecstatic love for Him. In this  way  He has become very dear ( vallabha ) to them.

     "The name  svaha  means the Lord's potency by which everything  is manifested."

            Each of these six transcendental words of the mantra  are  significant and the mantra is a complete means by which to devel­ op one's love for Krsna. (1) Krsnaya indicates Madana-Mohana  the  Deity  who establishes our relationship (sambandha)  with  Krsna.  (2) Govinda accepts our devotional service (abhideha). (3)  Gopi­ jana and (4) vallabhaya or Gopinatha satisfies all the gopis  and  is  the  ultimate  goal of life (prayojana).  (5)  Sva  indicates  ksetrajna  or, one who is conversant with one's inner  self,  and  the word (6) ha indicates the transcendental nature. Svaha gener­ ally means to offer oblations. But more specifically, sva may  be  understood as `I am the servant of the gopis', while ha means `to  give Krsna everything just as the gopis are doing'.      The  Kumaras further inquired: "What is His form? How is  He  glorified? How does one worship Him?" In reply, Brahma quoted the

following verses, meant for mantra upasana worship:

                     sat-pundarika-nayanam

                      meghabham vaidyutambaram

                    dvi-bhujam jnana-mudradhyam

                      vana-malinam isvaram

                    gopa-gopi-gavavitam

                      sura-druma-talasrayam

                    divyalankaranopetam

                      rakta-pankaja-madhyagam

                    kalindi-jala-kallola-

                      sangi-maruta-sevitam

                    cintayams cetasa krsnam

                      mukto bhavati samsrteh

"Meditating  with  all his heart on Lord Krsna,  whose  eyes  are  handsome  lotus  flowers, whose complexion is  a  monsoon  cloud,  whose  garments are lightning, who has two arms, who is  rich  in  transcendental knowledge, who wears a garland of forest  flowers,  who is the supreme controller, who is surrounded by  gopas ,  gopis ,  and   surabhi   cows,  who rests under a  sura-druma   tree,  who  is  decorated with splendid ornaments, who stands in the middle of  a  red lotus flower, and who is served by breezes that have  touched  the Yamuna's waves, a person becomes free from repeated birth and  death."

     Finally  Brahma  instructed  them to  repeatedly  chant  the   mantra  ` klim krsnaya govindaya gopijanavallabhaya svaha .'  Brahma  further  informed  them that anyone who chants this   mantra   even  once  quickly  attains the association of Lord  Krsna.  Regarding  worship of Govinda, Brahma stated that the Lord's altar should be  a  golden  lotus  with eight petals within  which  two  triangles  should be placed along with the  Gayatri mantra   [thus creating  a  hexagonal figure with sixfold divisions].      Every mantra has a corresponding yantra, or mystic  diagram,  suitable for worship according to the rules of tantric vidhi.

            Referring  to  the  Brahma-samhita 's Text  three  and  the  Gopala  mantra,  Srila Jiva Gosvami states: "This mantra  is  de­ scribed as  written in a hexagonal figure in the form of a mystic  diagram.  Within  that hexagonal mystic diagram is  situated  the  form of Sri Krsna, Who is luminous as a diamond. The six words of  the  mantra are written on the six sides of the hexagon. In  that  abode  reside  the  predominated  (prakriti)  and   predominating  (purusha)  aspect of the Absolute. Both the predominated and  the  predominating  aspects  are described  as  `premananda-mahananda- rasana avasthitam' (immersed in the bliss of countless  varieties  of exchanges of spiritual love)."]

7.  klim  kamadevaya vidmahe puspabanaya dhimahi tan  no'  nangah  pracodayat.

   kamadevaya-  unto  the master of the senses; vidmahe-  try  to  know;  puspabanaya- carrying arrows of flowers; dhimahi-  let  us  meditate; tat- that; nah- us; anangah- the transcendental  Cupid;  pracodayat- enthuses.

   "Let us meditate on the Master of the senses, Who carries  the  arrows of flowers. Let us meditate on Him being thus enthused  by  the transcendental Cupid."

                    Initiation in Kama-Gayatri  

      Then Gayatri, mother of the Vedas, being made manifest, i.e.  imparted, by the divine sound of the flute of Sri Krsna,  entered  into  the lotus mouth of Brahma, born from himself,  through  his  eight  ear-holes.   The  lotus-born Brahma  having  received  the  Gayatri,  sprung from the flute-song of Sri Krsna,  attained  the  status  of the twice-born, having been initiated by  the  supreme  primal preceptor, Godhead Himself.

 History of Kama-Gayatri  

In  Text 24, Lord Brahma was instructed to chant the  eight­ een-letter  mantra (sometimes refered to as  Gopala-mantra).   In  Text  26  it is stated that he meditated upon this mantra  for  a  long  time.  Thus, after chanting for thousands and thousands  of  years the Gopala-mantra of eighteen letters, Brahmaji was able to  perceive  the Supreme Lord and His spiritual abode.  Now in  this  text  it is explained that he heard the divine sound  of  Krsna's  flute through his eight ear-holes.  The sound of Krsna's flute is  the  most blissful sound in existence, and hence  Gayatri,  Vedic  rhythm, is present within it.  That transcendental blissful sound  entered  the  heart  of Brahma and issued forth  from  his  lotus  mouth.   Tene  brahma hrda ya adi-kavaye  (Bhag.  1.1.1).   Krsna  first  imparted the Vedic knowledge into the heart  of  Brahmaji,  the original created being.

     Brahmaji attained the status of being twice-born only  after  his  initiation by the Lord.  Although born directly  from  Visnu  Himself, his most exalted birth was not sufficient  qualification  for achieving the twice-born status.  No one can therefore  claim  brahminical status on the basis of family lineage as seen by  the  example  of the most elevated and best of the brahmanas,  Brahma.   Although  Brahma was initiated directly by the Supreme Lord,  one  who wishes to follow in his footsteps should approach the current  link in the disciplic succession, as explained earlier.  

     Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati states, "Kama-gayatri is the  highest  of all the Gayatris, because the meditation  and  prayer  contained  in it are full of the perfect transcendental  sportive  activities  which  are  not to be found in  any  other  Gayatri."   Although the kama-gayatri is eternally existing, Srila  Bhaktivi­ noda Thakura in Jaiva-Dharma provides the esoteric explanation of  kama-gayatri's  appearance.   Srila Bhaktivinoda  refers  to  the  creation  chapter  of the Padma Purana, wherein it  is  mentioned  that Gayatri first appeared as the mother of the Vedas.   Hearing  of  the good fortune of the Upanisads, all of whom were  born  in  Vraja-dhama  as gopis, Gayatri, after deep meditation  and  devo­ tion,  also took birth as a gopi along with Gopala-tapani  Upani­ sad.   Entering  the conjugal pastimes of Krsna,  she  thereafter  took the form of kama-gayatri, the highest of all the Gayatris.  

 

    Explanation of Kama-Gayatri 

     Speaking of the kama-gayatri (C.C. Madhya-lila 8.138), Srila  Prabhupada states: 

"This  mantra  is just like a Vedic hymn, but it is  the  Supreme  Personality  of Godhead Himself.  There is no difference  between  the kama-gayatri and Krsna.  Both are composed of twenty-four and  a half transcendental letters.  The mantra depicted in letters is  also  Krsna,  and the mantra rises just like the  moon.   Due  to  this, there is a perverted reflection of desire in human  society  and  among  all kinds of living entities.  In  the  mantra:  klim  kama-devaya vidmahe puspa-banaya dhimahi tan no 'nangah pracoday­ at,  Krsna  is called Kama-deva or Madana-mohana, the  Deity  who  establishes our relationship with Krsna. Govinda, or  puspa-bana,  who  carries  an  arrow made of flowers, is  the  Personality  of  Godhead who accepts our devotional service.  Ananga, or Gopijana- vallabha,  satisfies  all the gopis and is the ultimate  goal  of  life.   This kama-gayatri (klim kama-devaya vidmahe  puspa-banaya  dhimahi tan no 'nangah pracodayat) simply does not belong to this  material world.  When one is advanced in spiritual understanding,  he can worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead with his  spir­ itually purified senses and fulfill the desires of the Lord."

Srila  Prabhupada's above analysis divides the  kama-gayatri  into three divisions.  Klim kama-devaya vidmahe refers to Madana- mohana,  the  Deity who establishes our relationship  with  Krsna  (sambandha).  Puspa-banaya dhimahi indicates puspa-bana or Govin­ da, the Deity who accepts our devotional service (abhidheya), and  tan no 'nangah pracodayat; ananga or Gopijana-vallabha  satisfies  all the gopis and is the ultimate goal of life (prayojana).   The  Brahma  gayatri, om bhur bhuvah svah tat savitur varenyam  bhargo  devasya dhimahi dhiyo yo nah pracodayat, may also be divided into  three divisions.  However, the  kama-gayatri is superior  because  it  leads to the full realization of the transcendental  pastimes  of Gopijana-vallabha.  This realization does not come easily.  In  Brahmaji's  case,  he first had to perfect the  chanting  of  the  Gopal-mantra, which took a very, very long time.  These  two--the  Gopal-mantra of eighteen letters and kama-gayatri--are complemen­ tary and should be practiced together.  

     One  must qualify oneself to receive the actual  benefit  of  chanting Gayatri.  Srila Prabhupada explains (Bhag. 1.1.1), "This  Gayatri  mantra is meant for spiritually advanced  people.   When  one  is successful in chanting the Gayatri mantra, he  can  enter  into the transcendental position of the Lord.  One must therefore  acquire  brahminical  qualities or be perfectly situated  in  the  quality of goodness in order to chant the Gayatri mantra success­ fully and then attain to the stage of transcendentally  realizing  the  Lord,  His name, His fame, His qualities, and  so  on."   By  successfully  chanting  the  kama-gayatri,  Krsna  will  manifest  Himself  before us in the form of Radha and Krsna, surrounded  by  Lalita,  Visakha, and so many gopis, as we will thus  obtain  the  chance to serve Them in Their eternal pastimes.

     The  meaning  of  kama-gayatri has also  been  explained  by  Visvanatha  Cakravarti Thakura in his Mantrartha-dipika  as  fol­ lows:

   gayatri sa maha-mantrah

   kama-purvatha kathyate

   sadhaka yam grhitvaiva

    jayate vraja-mandale

"`The kama-gayatri is a maha-mantra.  Those devotees who chant it  will be born in the region of Vrndavana.'

The  kama-gayatri is that gayatri which has the kama-bija  joined  to  it [as given in relation to Text 3 of  Brahma-samhita].   Its  worshipable  Deity is the king of the mellows of  conjugal  love.   He is identical with the transcendental Cupid Sri Krsna, the  son  of Nanda Maharaja.  His abode is Sri Vrndavana.

In  the  Sanatkumara-samhita  the kama-gayatri  is  described  as  follows:

   adau manmatham uddhrtya

    kama-deva-padam vadet

    ayante vidmahe puspa-

    banayeti padam tatah

   dhimahiti tathoktvatha

  tan no 'nangah pracodayat

`Cupid  is  taken up at the beginning by  the  word  kama-devaya.   Then comes vidmahe puspa-banaya.  This is followed by dhimahi and  pracodayat.'

"Klim is the capture of the mind of Radha and the other gopis  by  the sweet sound of Krsna's flute.  Kama-devaya is the capture  of  the  discretion  of Radha and the other gopis  by  Krsna's  sweet  pastimes.   Puspa-banaya  is  the excitement of  the  desire  for  conjugal  love in Radha and the other gopis by the lovely  sweet­ ness of Krsna's qualities, etc.

"The purport of the word kama is 'relation and attendance.'   One  performs  worship  with  this gayatri in kamanuga,  or  in  other  words,  raganuga bhakti.  Kama-deva means he shows (divyati)  His  desires  (kaman).   Or  else, by His desires  (kamena)  He  plays  (divyati)  in  different pastimes.  Vidmahe means:  I  know  that  Kamadeva  (Cupid).   How is He a Kamadeva?  By  the  five  flower  arrows (puspa-bana) which are shot from the five-threaded  string  of Krsna's bow.  These arrows are represented by the five letters  of  the kama-bija.  I meditate (dhimahi) on Him as the  possessor  of  those  five arrows.  This, then, is the significance  of  the  kama-gayatri in so many words."

     The exalted associate of Lord Caitanya, Srila  Prabhodananda  Sarasvati Thakura, has also written an explanation known as Kama- gayatri-vakhya.  He provides a detailed description of the flower  arrows of Krsna, the transcendental Cupid:

"Kama  (love)  is  called a minister because  it  advises.   Kama  permeates  the whole universe from Brahmaloka on down.  Kama  has  five  arrows.  These arrows produce the following effects:   mad­ dening,  burning, cleansing, obstructing and bewildering.   These  five arrows are permeated by the following flowers: mango, asoka,  madhavi, jasmine, and bakula.  These five flowers are also  asso­ ciated  with  the letters of the kama-bija:  k--mango,  l--asoka,  i--madhavi, m--jasmine and the dot--bakula.  The Lord's one sweet  form  is said to have five sweet divisions: k--the  cheeks,  head  and  mouth;  l--the  eyes  and  ears;  f--form,  nose  and  eyes;  m--chest, back, nape and shanks; the dot--knees and feet.

"In the Gita-govinda, Jayadeva has written:

 srngarah sakhi murtiman iva

madhau mugdho harih kridatiti

"`O  Sakhi,  because Krsna burns with desire in spring  time,  He  sports with the gopis as if He were love personified.'

"There is also the following famous verse:

   madhuram madhuram vapur asya vibhor

   madhuram madhuram vadanam madhuram

    madhu-gandhi-mrdu-smitam etad aho

   madhuram madhuram madhuram madhuram

"`Sweet,  sweet is the body of the Lord.  Sweet, sweet, His  face  is  sweet.   O what a soft smile as fragrant  as  honey!   Sweet,  sweet, sweet, sweet!'

"Klim is the transcendental Cupid of Vrndavana.  The names of the  five  arrows are: cittananda-dhara, vidyananda-dhara,  sadananda- dhara,  kamananda-dhara and ramanananda-dhara.  These five  names  become one name as citta-vidya-sada-kama-ramana-dharaya  vidmahe,  or as citta-vidya-sada-kama-ramana-dharaya svaha.  The five names  correspond  to  the five flowers;  thus  mango--cittananda-dhara,  etc.   These five arrows also correspond to five sweet  forms  of  Krsna:  mango flower--citta-kandarpa (Cupid of the  mind),  asoka  flower--kamananda-prakasa  (manifestation of the bliss of  love),  bakula  flower--vidyananda-dhara (holding the bliss  of  wisdom).   These  three  names become  one  name:  citta-kandarpa-kamananda- vidyananda-dharaya  svaha.   The madhavi flower  is  koti-candra- mohini  (bewildering thousands of moons), and the jasmine  flower  is koti-prema-mohini (bewildering thousands of loves).  These two  names  become one:  koti-candra-koti-prema-mohinyai svaha.   This  fivefold explanation is found in the Gopala-tapani Upanisad.   It  also  gives the following information regarding  locations.   The  love-place  is Vrndavana.  The lotus is Sri Radhika.  The  flavor  of love is always beyond comprehension.  Sri Krsna is a bumblebee  hovering over that lotus to always drink its nectar.

"The five flavors are: taste, touch, sight, sound and smell.  The  five  rasas  are: santa, dasya, sakhya,  vatsalya  and  madhurya.   Their  main moods are: santa--peacefulness, dasya--love,  sakhya- friendship,  vatsalya--fondness, madhurya--dearness  in  conjugal  love.   Their main qualities are: santa--steadiness, dasya--serv­ ice,  sakhya--conviction,  vatsalya--affection,  madhurya--sweet­ ness.

"Thus  are  described the qualities, forms,  names,  letters  and  rasas of the five arrows.

   Krsna's Moon-Like Beauty 

     In the Caitanya-caritamrta, Madhya-lila, Chapter Twenty-one,  text  125, Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami compares  Lord  Krsna  and  the  kama-gayatri, which is identical with Him, to  so  many  moons:

 kama-gayatri-mantra-rupa,     haya krsnera svarupa,

     sardha-cabbisa aksara tara haya

   se aksara 'candra' haya,     krsne kari' udaya,

   trijagat kaila kamamaya

"Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is identical with the  Vedic hymn known as the kama-gayatri, which is composed of  twen­ ty-four  and a half syllables.  Those syllables are  compared  to  moons that arise in Krsna.  Thus all three worlds are filled with  desire."

     Srila  Visvanatha  Cakravarti  Thakura  has  identified  the  twenty-four and a half letters of the kama-gayatri as follows: 

"Theses twenty-four and a half letters are twenty-four and a half  moons.   They have risen on the body of Sri Krsna and  cause  all  the  three worlds to desire Krsna.  The letters from the first  k  to the final t represent His face, cheeks, forehead, down to  His  hands and feet.  These are calculated from right to left.

"Now  listen  to this description of the  moon-like  features  of  kama-gayatri's letters:

    esam apy aksaranam tu

   candratve nirnayam srnu

  mukhe  'py ekam vijaniyad

  gandayor dvau tathaiva ca

 lalate carddha-candram vai

   tilakam purna-candrakam

  panyor nakha dasa proktas

   tv aksarani manobhavah

   padabjagos tatha jneya

  nakha-candra dasa kramat

  artho vijneya ittham vai

   gayatryas ca manisibhih

   kramac canran vijaniyat

     kaditantaksarani tu

    daksinadi-kramenaiva

  kramas tesam su-sammatah

"`Listen,  the  arrangement of the moons of those letters  is  as  follows.   His face is one moon.  His cheeks are two moons.   His  forehead  is  a  half moon and His tilaka is a  full  moon.   His  fingernails  are ten moons and His toenails are understood to  be  ten  more moons.  This is how the wise have understood the  gaya­ tri.  These twenty-four and a half moons are considered identical  with  the letters of the gayatri, beginning with k and ending  in  t.   Their  order  is well established as  going  from  right  to  left.'"

     In  his Kama-gayatri-vakhya, Srila Prabhodananda  Sarasvati,  quoting  from various scholars and grammarians, gives a  detailed  description of each of the moons arising on Krsna's  transcenden­ tal body in relation to each of the letters of the  kama-gayatri.   An example is his description of the word kamadevaya:

"The  description  of the moons is as  follows.   The  Varnagama- bhasvad  says  that __ka__ and __ma are His two cheeks which  by  their  brilliance  are associated with affection, dalliance,  touch  and  longing.   According to Vyopana, ka indicates skill,  moon,  dal­ liance,  garland  and tastiness.  Rsabha says that  ma  indicates  sweetness,  laughter, exhibition, complexion and thirst.   De  is  the  verbal root da, which means 'giving.'  Da is changed  to  de  because  it is followed by va.  According to Dvadvoti,  de  indi­ cates  moon, dalliance, food and sun.  Vyagrabhuti says  that  de  indicates moon, laughter, ghee, charity and dalliance.  According  to the grammarian Bhasvati, va indicates forest, longing, loveli­ ness,  thunderbold and moon.  He also stated that because  ya  is  followed  by vi, it is considered a half syllable or  half  moon.   This was decided after due consideration of its  characteristics.   Vyadi says that ya indicates half moon, magnificence,  dalliance,  terror and fear."

     Normally scholars calculate that the number of syllables  in  the  kama-gayatri  mantra  as twenty-five.  but  Srila  Krsnadasa  Kaviraja  Goswami  calculated only twenty-four and a  half.  This  discrepency  led  to  a marvelous  revelation.  Srila  Visvanatha  Cakravarti  Thakura  relates the following  astonishing  incident  that occurred while he was writing his kama-gayatri commentary:

"In  the Caitanya-caritamrta Krsna dasa Kaviraja Gosvami  rejects  the  ordinary calculation of syllables in the gayatri as  twenty- five,  and  instead  states that it has twenty-four  and  a  half  syllables.   I also wrote the same thing in accordance  with  his  view.  Thus he states:

  kama-gayatri mantra-rupa

    hoya krsnera svarupa

    sarudha-cabbisa aksara tara haya

    se aksura candra-caya

krsne kari udaya

  trijagata keila kama-maya

"`The  kama-gayatri in the form of a mantra is the very  form  of  Krsna.  It has twenty-four and a half syllables.  As a cluster of  moons,  these syllables have arisen on the body of Sri Krsna  and  have  filled  the  three worlds with love for  Krsna.'  (C.c.  M.  21.125)

"On  the basis of this evidence and in persuance of the views  of  the previous acaryas, I also gave the same explanation.  However,  on  what  evidence  or for what reason did  Krsna  dasa  Kaviraja  Gosvami reject the normal calculation of twenty-five syllables in  favor of twenty-four and a half?  My mind was unable to penetrate  the  matter.   By searching through all the scriptures  you  will  still  be unable to find any mention of a half syllable.   There­ fore I sank into an ocean of deep doubts.

"Now consider the following.  If someone says that the final t is  a  half syllable because it is not followed by a vowel, then  the  same would apply for other consonants in the gayatri that are not  followed  by vowels.  In all existing literatures, such as  gram­ mars,  Puranas,  agamas, dramas and poetry it is  confirmed  that  there are fifty letters (syllables).  They never mention any half  syllable.  In this respect, the Hari-namamrta-vyakarana states:

   narayanad udbhuto 'yam varna-kramah

" 'This alphabet has originated from Lord Narayana.'

"The  Hari-namamrta-vyakarana lists the same fifty letters as  do  other  grammatical texts.  In the Radhika-sahasra-nama-stotra  of  the Brhan-naradiya Purana it is stated that Radha is the  embodi­ ment of the fifty letters.  In this way, even in the sections  of  books  dealing with poetry meters, I was unable to find any  evi­ dence for the existence of fifty and a half syllables.  How could  I  penetrate  the  mind of Krsna dasa Kaviraja  Gosvami?   I  was  unable to find a means.  Because he knows everything, he is  free  from the defects of error, illusion, etc.

"Moreover, if it is resolved that the final t of the kama-gayatri  is the half syllable, why did Krsna dasa Kaviraja again break the  order  of  the letters?  By beginning at the face  and  gradually  descending  to  the  feet, the final t or half moon  will  be  on  Krsna's feet, but Gosvamipada has placed it on His forehead.

"While  instructing  Sanatana Gosvami, Lord Caitanya  said  (C.c.  Madhya 21.126-130):

"`The  face of Krsna is the king of moons, and the body of  Krsna  is the throne.  Thus the king governs a society of moons.   Krsna  has two cheeks that shine like glowing gems.  Both are considered  full  moons.   His forehead is considered a half  moon,  and  His  spots  of sandalwood are considered full moons.  His  fingernails  are  many full moons, and they dance on the flute on  His  hands.   Their  song is the melody of that flute.  His toenails  are  also  many full moons, and they dance on the ground.  Their song is the  jingling  of his ankle bells.  Krsna's face is the enjoyer  king.   That fullmoon face makes His shark-shaped earrings and lotus eyes  dance.   His eyebrows are likke bows, and His eyes are  like  ar­ rows.  His ears are fixed on the string of that bow, and when His  eyes spred to His ears, He pierces the hearts of the gopis.   The  dancing  features  of His face surpass all other full  moons  and  expand  the marketplace of full moons.  Although  priceless,  the  nectar of Krsna's face is distributed to everyone.  Some purchase  the moonrays of His sweet smiles, and others purchase the  nectar  of His lips.  Thus He pleases everyone.' 

"Even  after studying this explanation from different angles,  no  definite  conclusion  could be drawn.  At that  time,  giving  up  trying to understand it, I stopped eating and drinking.  I decid­ ed to give up my body, and so I went and threw myself  helplessly  on the shore of Radhakunda.  If the syllables of the mantra  defy  human reason, how could one ever perceive God Himself?  Therefore  it seemed only fit to give up my life.

"Then, when the second watch of night arrived, I fell asleep  and  saw that the daughter of Vrsabhanu, Sri Radha, came and spoke  to  me: 'O Visvanatha!  O dear one of Hari!  Get up!  What Krsna dasa  Kaviraja Gosvami wrote is true.  He is my confidential attendant.   By  My mercy He knows all My confidential affairs.  Do not  doubt  his words.  That mantra is for worshiping  Me.  Indeed, I am  the  goal to be known by the letters of that mantra.  Without My mercy  no one can understand this.  The half syllable is described in  a  book  called  Varnagama-bhasvad.  After reading  it,  Krsna  dasa  Kaviraja wrote about the half syllable.  Listen.  After you  have  seen that book please make a collection of all evidences  regard­ ing the all-beneficial meaning of the mantra.'

"After  hearing Radha's words, I quickly regained  consciousness.   But my doubt continued, and so I began repeatedly crying,  'Alas!  Alas!'   Guarding Her order in my heart, I strove to nurture  it.   The description of the half syllable in Radha's own words was:

vy-anta-ya-karo  'rddhaksaram  lalate  'rddha-candra-bimbah   tad  itaram purnaksaram purna-candrah.

"`When the syllable ya is followed by vi, it is considered a half  syllable.   It  appears on Sri Krsna's forehead as a  half  moon.   All the other full syllables are full moons.'

"Sri  Radha's  decisive instruction about the  half  syllable  is  described in the Varna-gama-bhasvad in the follow way:

    vi-karanta-ya-karena

  carddhaksaram prakirtitam

"`When the syllable ya is followed by vi, it is considered a half  syllable.'

"The word gayatri is explained as follows:

   gayantam trayate tasmat

  gayatri tvam tatah smrtam

"  'Because she protects (trayate) the one who chants  (gayantam)  her, she is know as gayatri.'"

     This  wonderful  narration  not only  provides  an  intimate  understanding  of  kama-gayatri's meaning,  but  exemplifies  the  sincerity with which the chanting should be performed.  As  Srila  Visvanatha  Cakravarti advises, kama-gayatri can be  successfully  performed  by one who has achieved the stage  of  raganuga-bhakti  (spontaneous devotional service).  Those who are not so  advanced  should  still  go on chanting the mantra on the strength  of  the  spiritual master's order.  Keeping full faith on guru and  Krsna,  by  the  power of devotional service one  will  gradually  become  qualified  to  behold Krsna in His transcendental form  as  Kama- deva, the ever-new Cupid.  The example of Lord Brahma, who  began  in  confusion  but became fully Krsna conscious  by  his  sincere  devotional attitude, is proof that by following in his  footsteps  one may similarly achieve the same goal.